& Brief Summaries of Each
The Importance of Selling Formats: When Integrating Purchase and Quantity Decisions Increases Sales
Kristen Duke & On Amir (forthcoming)
In 36 lab experiments and a field experiment with all web traffic on a major retailer's site, we compare two ways of structuring a purchase decision. We find that people are much more likely to make a purchase when the whether to buy and how many to buy decisions are integrated into one simultaneous choice rather than being resolved sequentially. One reason for this is that "quantity-integrated" choices anchor people later in the buying decision process.
A Behavioral Science Framework to Address Latent Demand in Mental Healthcare
Renante Rondina, Cindy Quan, Kristen Duke & Dilip Soman (in press)
Conversations around improving mental health care typically focus on bolstering supply. We give a complementary perspective on how behavioral science principles and techniques can help manage demand and maximize returns from mental healthcare engagement.
What Makes People Happy? Decoupling the Experiential-Material Continuum
Journal of Consumer Psychology
Evan Weingarten, Kristen Duke, Wendy Liu, et al. (forthcoming)
We show that the "experientialness" and "materialness" of a good are better represented as separate features rather than opposing ends of the same construct. Through disentangling the two, and testing hundreds of different products, we show that purchases high on both factors tend to yield the highest happiness.
Consistency Just Feels Right: Procedural Fluency Increases Confidence in Performance
Journal of Experimental Psychology: General
Elanor Williams, Kristen Duke, & David Dunning (2020)
We show that subtle aspects of a task's structure can induce a feeling of fluency. Specifically, when completing a series of tasks with superficially consistent features (e.g., solving number sequences with the same blank position), people experience "procedural fluency," which increases their confidence in their performance.
How Incentive Framing Can Harness the Power of Social Norms
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes
Alicea Lieberman, Kristen Duke, & On Amir (2019)
We show that social norms are subtly communicated through the structure of an incentive. Specifically, loss-framed incentives like surcharges convey injunctive and descriptive social norms about the incentivized behavior. As a result, having a surcharge (vs. discount) in an environment can have rippling effects on behavior elsewhere in the community.
Guilt Dynamics: Consequences of Temporally Separating Decisions and Actions
Journal of Consumer Research
Kristen Duke & On Amir (2019)
We show that feelings of guilt come from two sources: “decision guilt” (tied to the initial choice) and “action guilt” (tied to the behavior itself). When time passes between when we decide to perform some guilt-inducing action and when it actually happens, decision guilt can decay in this interim period. As a result, experiences structured with "decision-enactment gaps" let people feel less guilty during their actions, leading them to indulge more and atone less.
Is the Preference for Certainty Always So Certain?
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research
Kristen Duke, Kelly Goldsmith, & On Amir (2018)
We study the certainty effect: consumers' preference for certain over uncertain/risky rewards. We highlight how task structure features that lead to reliance on gist versus details (time pressure, intuition, reward values, etc.; design features that are used commonly in JDM research) accentuate—and hence may overestimate—the preference for certainty.
Brain Drain: The Mere Presence of One’s Own Smartphone Reduces Available Cognitive Capacity
Journal of the Association for Consumer Research
Adrian Ward, Kristen Duke, Ayelet Gneezy, & Marten Bos (2017)
The mere presence of our smartphones in our vicinity, even if they are completely powered off, detracts from available cognitive resources. This happens because we automatically orient our attention toward monitoring our phones, just like parents automatically attend to the sound of a baby's cry. The detrimental effects of phone presence are more pronounced for people who have higher smartphone dependence.
Speaking out of Both Sides of Their Mouths: Biased Political Judgments Within (and Between) Individuals
Social Psychological and Personality Science
Jarret Crawford, Sophie Kay, and Kristen Duke (2015)
Policy preferences can be asymmetric: peacefully protesting is ethical when the causes we support do it, but not when our opponent does. Yet, will people openly show this asymmetry within-subjects? We find that within-subjects designs weaken, but do not eliminate, individuals' tendencies to "speak out of both sides of their mouths." Further, liberals are more motivated to appear unprejudiced, but equally prone to this tendency. More broadly, we comment on the choice of between- vs. within-subjects research designs.